Private Key, Public Key, Address
- Private Key
A private key is a group of 64-bit hexadecimal characters. We can access an account through a private key or generate a private key using random numbers.
- Public Key
Compared with Bitcoin, they are actually the same in generating a public key from a private key, both generated through secp256k1 elliptic curve algorithm.
After calculating Keccak-256 hash value, take 20bytes as address.
Below is the example:
Private Key (private key)the example of a 256bit private key generated by pseudo-random number (256bit hexadecimal 32bytes):
Public Key (public key)Adopt elliptic curve digital signature algorithm ECDSA-secp256k1 to map private key (32 bytes) to public key (65 bytes) (prefix04+X public key+Y private key):
04 50863ad64a87ae8a2fe83c1af1a8403cb53f53e486d8511dad8a04887e5b2352 2cd470243453a299fa9e77237716103abc11a1df38855ed6f2ee187e9c582ba6
Address (address)Use public key (uncompressed public key) to hash and calculate Keccak-256 hash value（32bytes）：fc12ad814631ba689f7abe671016f75c54c607f082ae6b0881fac0abeda21781
**Take the result of previous step and take the rear 20 bytes to obtain RangersProtocol address: ** 1016f75c54c607f082ae6b0881fac0abeda21781
Nodes and Consensus Nodes
- Nodes and Consensus Nodes
Refer to various devices joining Rangers Protocol network with the operation of Rangers Protocol programs. The node will receive block information from the Rangers Protocol network and update the local status. However, the node will not participate in the block-out process. Therefore, no benefits are generated. The node send a consensus node application and stake Rangers Protocol Gas tokens to become a consensus node. The consensus nodes will participate in the block-out process according to Rangers Protocol’s consensus and receive benefits according to the economic mode. The consensus nodes are divided into proposal nodes and verification nodes. The consensus nodes are forbidden to become proposal and verification nodes simultaneously. However, the consensus nodes can change their identities, shifting between proposal and verification.
- Proposal node
Proposal nodes are in charge of packaging transactions and generating the candidate blocks. The candidate blocks will be submitted to the verification group, become the formal blocks, and broadcast to the network-wide after verification.
Verification node and verification group
- Verification node and verification group
A certain number of verification node groups comprise the verification group. They complete the verification works through cooperative signatures in the group. One node can join various verification groups. The staking quantity of a verification node decides the number of groups to join.
Genesis block and genesis verification group
- Genesis block and genesis verification
The first block generated by rangersProtocol is called the genesis block. While the first verification group is called genesis verification
- Settlement period
For the settlement of nodes’ benefits, RangersProtocol has a fixed period. Currently, it is fixed as 10 hours. During the staking reduction of the nodes, the time when the returned funds are credited into account will also be related to the settlement period.
- Distributed signature
A cryptographic signature technology based on TSS (Threshold Signature) applied to distributed systems.
Refers to the computer system’s ability to handle errors during execution and the ability of the algorithm to continue regular operation when encountering input, operation, and other abnormalities.
- Contract-level interoperability
The behavior of calling each other’s smart contracts between two or more blockchains that support smart contracts.
- Blockchain group
A blockchain cluster managed, connected, and formed through Rangers Protocol by multiple isomorphic sub-chains.
- Horizontal expansion
The ability to connect multiple software or hardware features so that multiple servers can be viewed as one entity.
- Zero-knowledge proof
There is an interaction between the prover and the verifier. The prover can convince the verifier that a specific assertion is correct without providing helpful information to the verifier.
Remote Procedure Call is a computer communication protocol. This protocol allows a process running on one computer to call a sub-process of another computer without the programmer needing to program this interaction.